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  • Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course Literature

    嗨,我是約翰-格林,這裡是文學速成班。

  • and this is The Great Gatsby.

    這就是《了不起的蓋茨比》。

  • This novel barely makes it to 200 pages even with rather large print

    這本小說即使有相當大的字體,也只能勉強做到200頁。

  • and yet it’s so magnificently complex and rich

    卻又是那麼的複雜豐富

  • that we can’t possibly do it justice in two videos,

    我們不可能在兩段視頻中把它表現出來。

  • so today were gonna focus on a specific question: Is Gatsby great?

    所以,今天我們要專注於一個具體的問題,《蓋茨比》很棒嗎?

  • Mr. Green, Mr. Green. No.

    格林先生,格林先生。不知道

  • Oh it’s so cute when you think youre entitled to your opinions,

    哦,當你認為你有資格發表你的意見時,它是如此可愛。

  • Me from the Past,

    來自過去的我。

  • even when theyre entirely uninformed opinions.

    即使他們是完全不知情的意見。

  • As penance for being such a little Hemingway [language, Mr. Green!]

    作為對自己是個小海明威的懺悔 [語言,格林先生!]。

  • about this stuff,

    關於這個東西。

  • you will one day have to host a show about the glorious ambiguity of literature.

    你總有一天要主持一檔關於文學的光榮曖昧的節目。

  • [Best]

    [最佳]

  • [intro music]

    [介紹音樂]

  • [intro music]

    [介紹音樂]

  • [intro music]

    [介紹音樂]

  • [intro music]

    [介紹音樂]

  • [intro music]

    [介紹音樂]

  • [EVER!]

    [永遠!]

  • So a while back we discussed the Aristotelian tragedy of Romeo and Juliet,

    所以前段時間我們討論了亞里士多德的悲劇《羅密歐與朱麗葉》。

  • in which people of high-birth are brought low by weaknesses of character.

    在這種情況下,高出生的人因性格上的弱點而變得低下。

  • Shakespeare introduced some ambiguity into that story arc,

    莎士比亞在這個故事弧中引入了一些歧義。

  • as youll remember: There was bad luck involved in their demise,

    你會記得的他們的死是有厄運的。

  • and their mistakes, such as they were,

    和他們的錯誤,因為他們是。

  • weren’t so grievous as to render Romeo and Juliet unsympathetic.

    並沒有因為羅密歐和朱麗葉的悲慘遭遇而變得不近人情。

  • Also, as in many tragedies, Shakespeare used heightened, poetic language

    另外,和許多悲劇一樣,莎士比亞也使用了高度化、詩意化的語言。

  • to help us care about Romeo and Juliet

    幫助我們關心羅密歐與朱麗葉。

  • and root for them instead of just holding them up as examples

    擁護他們,而不是把他們當成例子

  • of what terrible things befall you when youre naughty.

    當你淘氣的時候,有什麼可怕的事情降臨到你身上。

  • Now, obviously, Gatsby isn’t a work of poetry,

    很明顯,《蓋茨比》不是一部詩歌作品。

  • but Fitzgerald found himself with similar problems.

    但菲茨傑拉德發現自己也有類似的問題。

  • As many a high schooler has pointed out,

    正如很多高中生指出的那樣。

  • the characters in The Great Gatsby aren’t terribly likable,

    《了不起的蓋茨比》中的人物並不十分可愛。

  • and the story just isn’t moving or compelling if youre reading about

    而故事只是不動人或引人注目,如果你讀的是

  • a bunch of people you hate,

    一群你討厭的人。

  • some of whom get what’s coming to them and some of whom don’t.

    有些人得到了他們所要的,有些人沒有。

  • Fitzgerald handles this problem by heightening the language

    菲茨傑拉德通過提高語言的高度來處理這個問題。

  • and giving it pace. [some handle it by imagining Robert Redford in his prime]

    並給它的節奏。[有些人通過想象羅伯特-雷德福在他的鼎盛時期處理它]

  • I mean, you can basically tap your foot to The Great Gatsby

    我的意思是,你基本上可以 敲你的腳,以偉大的蓋茨比。

  • from the very first sentence:

    從第一句話開始。

  • In my younger and more vulnerable years,

    "在我年輕和脆弱的時候。

  • my father gave me some advice I’ve been turning over in my mind ever since.”

    我的父親給了我一些建議,我一直在我的腦海裡翻來覆去。"

  • It’s got a beat and I can dance to it. [current restraint is a great move]

    它有節拍,我可以跟著它跳舞。[目前的剋制是一個偉大的舉措]

  • And the descriptions are jarringly, magnificently beautiful, too:

    而這些描述也是令人震撼的,壯美的。

  • Daisy voice sounds full of money;

    黛西的聲音聽起來充滿了錢。

  • the fading glow on Jordan Baker’s face is

    喬丹-貝克臉上漸漸消退的光芒是...

  • like children leaving a pleasant street at dusk;”

    "就像孩子們在黃昏時分離開一條愉快的街道;"

  • at the end of the novel,

    在小說的最後。

  • Nick imagines the first European explorers of New York, writing,

    尼克想象著紐約的第一批歐洲探險家,寫道。

  • For a transitory, enchanted moment

    "短暫的,迷人的時刻

  • man must have held his breath in the presence of this continent,

    在這片大陸面前,人一定是屏住了呼吸。

  • compelled into an aesthetic contemplation he neither understood nor desired,

    被迫進入一種他既不理解也不希望的審美沉思。

  • face to face for the last time in history

    面對面

  • with something commensurate to his capacity for wonder.”

    與他的驚奇能力相稱的東西。"

  • Putting aside the fact that Fitzgerald failed to foresee that humans would

    暫且不說菲茨傑拉德沒有預見到人類會。

  • one day walk on the moon, not to mention create fake fake flowers, the

    有朝一日在月球上行走,別說製造假的假花,該

  • descriptions here are lush and beautiful.

    這裡的描述是鬱鬱蔥蔥,美不勝收。

  • So the language of the novel elevates

    所以小說的語言提升了

  • Gatsby’s triumphs and tragedies to the stuff of real epics, which

    蓋茨比的勝利和悲劇都是真正的史詩,而這些史詩

  • gives Gatsby a kind of unironic greatness.

    讓蓋茨比有了一種非諷刺性的偉大。

  • Stan! Can we just decide if these are

    斯坦!我們可以決定這些是否是

  • physical digital flowers or digital digital flowers?

    物理數字花還是數字數字花?

  • [instead only try to realize the truth- that there is no flower]

    [而不是隻想認識到沒有花的真相]

  • Remember, you do not have to be good to be Great.

    記住,你不一定要成為優秀的人,才能成為偉大的人。

  • [kinda like The Matrix trilogy on the whole]

    [有點像黑客帝國三部曲的整體]

  • And as the critic Matthew J. Bruccoli notes, Gatsby

    而正如評論家Matthew J. Bruccoli所指出的,蓋茨比。

  • is truly great by virtue of his capacity to commit himself to his aspirations.”

    "是真正的偉大,因為他的能力承諾自己的願望。"

  • [lovely, if a bit circumlocution-y]

    [可愛的,雖然有點繞口令的意思]

  • I mean, we celebrate achievement born of hard work and clarity of purpose

    我的意思是,我們要慶祝因努力工作和明確目標而取得的成就。

  • because there’s a greatness in that success that you don’t get by,

    因為那份成功中的偉大,是你沒有辦法得到的。

  • like, lounging around and using your pool all the time.

    就像,懶洋洋地使用你的游泳池所有的時間。

  • Remember, there’s exactly one person at Gatsby’s parties who doesn’t get drunk:

    記住,在蓋茨比的派對上,有一個人是不會喝醉的。

  • [the teetotalling] Gatsby.

    [teetotalling] 蓋茨比。

  • I mean,

    我的意思是

  • he’s a bootlegger who doesn’t drink, a swimming pool owner who doesn’t swim,

    他是一個不喝酒的酒鬼,一個不游泳的游泳池老闆。

  • a man of leisure who never engages in a single leisure activity.

    悠閒的人,從不從事任何休閒活動。

  • But as Bruccoli further points out,

    但正如布魯科利進一步指出的那樣:

  • there’s plenty of irony in the titular description of Gatsby as Great.

    把蓋茨比形容為偉大,這裡面有很多的諷刺意味。

  • The adjective indicates the tawdry and exaggerated aspects of his life:

    "誇張 "這個形容詞表示他生活中的乏味和誇張的方面。

  • Hurry, hurry, hurry! Step right up and see the Great Gatsby!”

    快快快,快快快!快步走,看《了不起的蓋茨比》!"

  • I mean, he’s part magician, andin a world of wealth

    我的意思是,他是魔術師的一部分,而且... ...在一個富裕的世界裡... ...

  • he’s part carnival curiosity.

    他是部分狂歡節的好奇心。

  • Bruccoli notes that Tom Buchanan describes Gatsby’s famous yellow car

    布魯科利指出,湯姆-布坎南描述了蓋茨比的著名黃車

  • as a “circus wagon.”

    作為 "馬戲團的馬車"。

  • [sure makes for a looker of a chalkboard]

    [肯定會讓黑板看起來更像黑板]

  • Okay, let’s go to the Thought Bubble.

    好了,讓我們去思想保麗龍。

  • One thing Gatsby has in common with

    蓋茨比的一個共同點是

  • Romeo and Juliet is that theyre all obsessed with controlling time,

    羅密歐與朱麗葉就是他們都迷戀控制時間。

  • which of course continues passing anyway.

    這當然繼續通過反正。

  • Like, Juliet tries to force night to come quickly and dawn to stay away,

    就像,朱麗葉試圖迫使黑夜快點到來,黎明遠離。

  • because only under cover of darkness can her marriage thrive.

    因為只有在黑暗的掩護下,她的婚姻才能茁壯成長。

  • Similarly, Gatsby doesn’t just want to marry Daisy:

    同樣,蓋茨比也不只是想娶黛西。

  • He needs her to say that she never loved Tom Buchanan at all,

    他需要她說她根本就沒有愛過湯姆-布坎南。

  • as if he can erase the past five years. [definitely a red flag]

    彷彿他可以抹去過去五年。[絕對是一個紅旗]

  • What theyll do about Daisy’s baby is a fascinating question

    他們將如何處理黛西的孩子是一個令人著迷的問題。

  • that Gatsby seems wholly uninterested in,

    蓋茨比似乎完全不感興趣。

  • but anyway,

    但無論如何,

  • Gatsby’s dream is that he and Daisy willto quote Nick

    蓋茨比的夢想是,他和黛西將--引用尼克的話--。

  • go back to Louisville and be married from her house

    "回到路易斯維爾,在她家結婚--

  • just as if it were five years ago.”

    就像五年前一樣。"

  • Nick’s perfectly sensible response to this idea is,

    尼克對這個想法的完全合理的反應是:

  • You can’t repeat the past.”

    "你不能重複過去。"

  • [also, Very difficult to keep the line between the past and the present]

    [另外,很難保持過去和現在之間的界限]

  • And then Gatsby utters his most famous line:

    然後蓋茨比說出了他最著名的一句話。

  • Can’t repeat the past? Why of course you can.”

    "不能重複過去嗎?為什麼你當然可以。"

  • And then he says,

    然後他說:

  • “I’m going to fix everything just the way it was before.”

    "我要把一切都修復好,就像以前一樣。"

  • Romeo and Juliet want to extend the present into forever

    羅密歐和朱麗葉想把現在的時間延長到永遠。

  • because they know their future is bleak;

    因為他們知道自己的未來是暗淡的。

  • Gatsby believes the key to the beautiful future is

    蓋茨比認為,美麗未來的關鍵是

  • a perfect restoration of the beautiful past.”

    完美地還原了過去的美好時光。"

  • Thanks, Thought Bubble.

    謝謝你,思想保麗龍。

  • Okay, a brief aside before we return to Gatsby’s questionable greatness:

    好了,在我們回到蓋茨比的問題偉大之前,先簡單說一下。

  • The idea of restoring the past to create a beautiful future

    恢復過去創造美好未來的理念。

  • is of course not unique to Gatsby,

    當然不是蓋茨比獨有的。

  • which is why no candidate for President

    這就是為什麼沒有總統候選人

  • can ever get through a speech without mentioning some previous President,

    講話時不能不提到某位前總統。

  • whose glorious leadership the current campaign intends to channel

    目前的運動打算在其光輝的上司下進行。

  • so as to make it morning in America again.

    以便讓美國的早晨再次來臨。

  • It’s also why Americans fight so much

    這也是為什麼美國人打得那麼厲害

  • about what the Founding Fathers would think of us, when in fact,

    關於建國元勳會怎麼看我們,其實。

  • what they would think is probably,

    他們會認為的可能是。

  • You guys are dressed funny. Also, how come this room is so bright

    "你們穿得真有趣。還有,這個房間怎麼這麼亮

  • without any windows? Furthermore, why is this screen talking to me?”

    沒有任何窗口?此外,為什麼這個螢幕會跟我說話?"

  • Now, of course, this nostalgia isn’t unique to the United States,

    當然,現在,這種懷舊情緒並不是美國獨有的。

  • but you also have to remember that Gatsby is the ultimate self-made man,

    但你也要記住,蓋茨比是一個最終的自力更生的人。

  • having both literally and figuratively made a name for himself.

    在字面上和形象上都已名聲大噪。

  • And this combination of aspirational impulses and the urge to

    而這種渴望的衝動和衝動的結合。

  • restore life to some immaculate past does strike me as very American.

    恢復到一些完美無缺的過去的生活確實讓我覺得很美國。

  • That’s what makes the tragedy of Gatsby so much more interesting and complicated

    所以《蓋茨比》的悲劇才會更加有趣和複雜。

  • than the Aristotelian model of tragedy.

    比亞里士多德的悲劇模式。

  • Instead of being a person of high birth, Gatsby is a person of low birth,

    與其說蓋茨比是一個高出生的人,不如說是一個低出生的人。

  • albeit one born into a world that claims not to care about

    儘管他出生在一個自稱不在乎的世界裡。

  • or even believe in such things.

    甚至相信這種事情。

  • And instead of experiencing a reversal of fortune due to a weakness of character,

    而不是因為性格上的弱點而經歷命運的逆轉。

  • Jay Gatsby

    傑伊-蓋茨比...

  • well, that’s where it gets complicated actually.

    好了,這就是它變得複雜其實。

  • I mean,

    我的意思是

  • Daisy Buchanan was driving the car, but Gatsby chose to take the fall for her.

    黛西-布坎南開著車,但蓋茨比卻選擇替她頂罪。

  • But, he’s also doomed just because

    但是,他的命運也只是因為

  • he lives in a social order that’s happy to drink illegal alcohol,

    他生活在一個樂於飲用非法酒精的社會秩序中。

  • but condemns a sober bootlegger.

    但卻譴責一個清醒的酒鬼。

  • Oh, it’s time for the Open Letter?

    哦,是時候寫公開信了?

  • [slides over to jump into the glory that is that yellowy green mess of a chair]

    [滑過去跳進榮耀 那是一個黃綠色的混亂的椅子]

  • An Open Letter to Prohibition.

    給禁酒令的一封公開信。

  • But, first, let’s see what’s in the secret compartment today.

    不過,先來看看今天的密室裡有什麼。

  • Be booze, be booze, be booze,

    是酒,是酒,是酒,是酒。

  • be--yes!

  • Touchdown. It’s mystery liquor.

    觸地得分。這是神祕酒。

  • [oh boy]

    [哦,男孩]

  • Alright, the game here is simple.

    好吧,這裡的遊戲很簡單。

  • I drink the mystery liquor and try to guess what it is.

    我喝下神祕的酒,並嘗試猜測它是什麼。

  • Southern Comfort?...No?

    南方的舒適嗎......不?

  • What is it?...Jack-

    這是什麼...

  • -that’s too easy, Meredith.

    -那太容易了,梅雷迪思。

  • Jack Daniels. Anybody could get Jack Daniels.

    傑克-丹尼爾斯任何人都可以得到傑克-丹尼爾斯。

  • Dear Prohibition, You were crazy.

    親愛的禁酒令,你真是瘋了

  • I mean, for the rest of American history,

    我的意思是,在美國曆史的其餘部分。

  • our Constitution is gonna be this weird document that is perfectly normal

    我們的憲法將是一個奇怪的文件 這是完全正常的。

  • until the 18th Amendment, which suddenly bans alcohol,

    直到第18條修正案,突然禁酒。

  • and then the 21st Amendment,

    然後是第21條修正案。

  • which is suddenly like, “No, no, no. Terrible idea!”

    這是突然像,"不,不,不。可怕的想法!"

  • [not unlike the Hammer Pants phenomenon]

    [和錘子褲現象不一樣]

  • It’s almost like legislating morality doesn’t actually increase morality.

    這幾乎就像為道德立法實際上並沒有提高道德。

  • [see what he did there?]

    [看到他在那裡做了什麼?]

  • But Prohibition, in you,

    但禁酒令,在你。

  • Fitzgerald found the perfect metaphor for American hypocrisy and debauchery.

    菲茨傑拉德為美國人的虛偽和放蕩找到了完美的隱喻。

  • We are not very good at tolerating naughtiness in America,

    在美國,我們不善於容忍頑皮。

  • but we love being naughty. [for reals]

    但我們喜歡被淘氣。[真正的]

  • In short, Prohibition,

    總之,禁酒令。

  • you were a terrible idea, but a fantastic metaphor,

    你是一個可怕的想法, 但一個夢幻般的比喻。

  • so thanks for that.

    所以,謝謝你。

  • Best Wishes, John Green

    最良好的祝願,約翰-格林

  • So, is Gatsby doomed by his romanticization of Daisy,

    那麼,蓋茨比是不是因為對黛西的浪漫化而註定了他的命運。

  • by his refusal to accept that

    由於他拒絕接受

  • he just wasn’t born to be one of the gold-hatted men of leisure,

    他只是天生不適合做一個戴金帽的閒人。

  • by his belief that any means justifiesif youll pardon the pun

    他認為任何手段都是正當的 -- 請原諒我的雙關語 --

  • Daisy’s end?

    黛西的結局?

  • [grumble]

    [抱怨]

  • Yes, yes, and yes. But more than that,

    是的,是的,也是的。但不止於此。

  • the great Gatsby lives in a cold world that cares nothing for justice,

    偉大的蓋茨比生活在一個冷酷的世界裡,對正義毫不在意。

  • a world that makes claims to fairness

    一個號稱公平的世界

  • but really only further rewards those who have already been rewarded.

    但其實只是進一步獎勵那些已經獲得獎勵的人。

  • I mean, who even survives this novel?

    我是說,這本小說誰還能活下來?

  • Only the idle rich: Jordan Baker, Daisy and Tom Buchanan, Nick Carraway.

    只有閒散的富人。喬丹・貝克,黛西和湯姆・布坎南,尼克・卡拉韋。

  • They survive, and they are allowed to go on being careless.

    他們活下來了,他們就可以繼續大意了。

  • As Nick writes,

    正如尼克所寫。

  • They were careless people, Tom and Daisythey smashed up things and creatures

    "他們是粗心的人,湯姆和黛西... ...他們把東西和生物都砸壞了

  • and then retreated back into their money or their vast carelessness.”

    然後又退回到他們的金錢或他們的巨大的粗心之中。"

  • They aren’t cruel, or malicious, theyre just careless

    他們不是殘忍的,也不是惡意的,他們只是粗心... ...

  • they don’t care too much about Myrtle or Gatsby or their daughter

    他們並不太關心桃金娘、蓋茨比和他們的女兒。

  • or even each other.

    甚至是彼此。

  • To live without a care in the world is supposed to be the dream, right?

    無憂無慮的生活,應該是夢想吧?

  • Everyone wants a care-free life.

    每個人都希望自己的生活無憂無慮。

  • But Fitzgerald shows us the horror of this care-free life,

    但菲茨傑拉德向我們展示了這種無憂無慮的生活的恐怖。

  • how the Tom and Daisy’s inability to care

    Tom和Daisy的無能是怎樣的?

  • is in some ways more monstrous than outright cruelty would be.

    在某種程度上,是比徹底的殘忍更可怕的。

  • It’s not like Romeo and Juliet,

    它不像羅密歐與朱麗葉。

  • where the lovers are sacrificed and then Verona is healed.

    在那裡,戀人被犧牲,然後維羅納被治癒。

  • Nothing is made whole by the tragedy of The Great Gatsby.

    沒有什麼是因《了不起的蓋茨比》的悲劇而成全的。

  • I think that’s why some readers find the novel depressing and hopeless,

    我想這也是一些讀者覺得小說壓抑、無奈的原因。

  • even amid all the lush language and witty turns of phrase.

    即使在所有華麗的語言和詼諧的轉折中。

  • But I don’t think it is hopeless. Remember that line from the first chapter:

    但我認為並不是沒有希望。記得第一章的那句話。

  • Gatsby turned out all right in the end, it was what preyed on Gatsby,

    "蓋茨比最後的結果都是好的,是什麼獵殺了蓋茨比。

  • what foul dust floated in the wake of his dreams…”

    他的夢境中漂浮著什麼骯髒的塵埃..."

  • As individuals, and as a collective, the tragedy isn’t in dreaming;

    作為個人,也作為集體,悲劇不在夢中。

  • it’s in chasing an unworthy dream.

    是在追逐一個不值得的夢想。

  • So in the end, is Gatsby great?

    那麼最後,蓋茨比偉大嗎?

  • I’m interested to read your comments, but here’s my takeaway:

    我很有興趣看你們的評論,但我的心得是這樣的。

  • Jay Gatsby was a great man.

    傑伊-蓋茨比是一個偉大的人。

  • But great people especially must be careful about what they worship.

    但偉大的人尤其要注意自己崇拜的東西。

  • Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next week.

    謝謝你的觀看。下週見。

  • Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller.

    Crash Course》由Stan Muller製作並執導。

  • Too far!

    太遠了!

  • Our script supervisor is Meredith Danko.

    我們的劇本主管是Meredith Danko。

  • The associate producer is Danica Johnson.

    副製片人是Danica Johnson。

  • The show is written by me.

    這個節目是我寫的。

  • And our [crazy great] graphics team is Thought Bubble.

    而我們[瘋狂的偉大]的圖文團隊就是Thought Bubble。

  • Every week, instead of cursing, I say the name of a writer I like.

    每週,我都會說一個我喜歡的作家的名字,而不是罵人。

  • [or that the rest of us find particularly amusing]

    [或我們其他人覺得特別有趣的]

  • If you’d like to suggest writers, you can do so in comments

    如果你想推薦作家,你可以在評論中這樣做

  • where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will be answered by

    您也可以在這裡提出關於今天視頻的問題,這些問題將由以下人員回答。

  • our team of English Literature experts. [everyone say hello to Stan's mom!]

    我們的英語文學專家團隊。[大家跟斯坦的媽媽打個招呼吧!]

  • Thanks for watching Crash Course and as we say in my hometown,

    感謝觀看《速成班》,正如我們在家鄉所說的那樣。

  • don’t forget NASA uses the 1998 movie Armageddon as a training film.

    別忘了NASA用1998年的電影《世界末日》作為訓練片。

  • [Srsly.]

    [Srsly。]

Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course Literature

嗨,我是約翰-格林,這裡是文學速成班。

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B1 中級 中文 CrashCourse 蓋茨比 黛西 偉大 羅密歐 悲劇

顛覆文學:大亨小傳偉大嗎?Was Gatsby Great? The Great Gatsby Part 2: Crash Course English Literature #5

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